29 April 2013

His Master's Voice-15

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay (Bengali: হেমন্ত কুমার মুখোপাধ্যায়; also Hemanta Mukherjee; 16 June 1920 – 26 September 1989) was a Bengali singer, composer and producer. He sang in Hindi films under the name Hemant Kumar. Hemanta was born in the city of Varanasi (India). His family originated from Baharu village in West Bengal. They migrated to Kolkata in the early 1900s. Hemanta grew up there and attended Mitra Institution school of Bhawanipore area. There he met his longtime friend, Subhas Mukhopadhyay who later became a Bengali poet. During this time, he developed friendship with noted writer Santosh Kumar Ghosh. In fact, at that time, Hemanta used to write short stories, Santosh Kumar wrote poems and Subhash Mukhopadhyay sang songs. After passing the intermediate examinations (12th grade), Hemanta joined Bengal Engineering college to pursue Engineering. However, he quit academics to pursue a career in music, despite parental objection. He briefly tried his hand at literature and also published a short story in a prestigious Bengali magazine called Desh, but by the late-1930s he was committed entirely to music.

Under the influence of his friend Subhas Mukhopadhyay, Hemanta recorded his first song for All India Radio in 1933. The first line of the song was Amar Ganete Ele Nabarupi Chirantanii. Hemanta's music career was primarily mentored by the Bengali musician, Sailesh Duttagupta. In an interview on television in the early 1980s, Hemanta had mentioned that he had also received classical music training from Ustad Faiyaz Khan, but his tutelage was cut short by Ustad's untimely death. In 1937, Hemanta cut his first gramophone disc under the Columbia label. The songs (non-film) on this disc were Janite Jadi Go Tumi and Balo Go Balo More whose lyrics were by Naresh Bhattacharya and music was composed by Sailesh Duttagupta. Thereafter, every year Hemanta continued to record non-film discs for the Gramophone Company of India (GCI) till 1984. His first Hindi songs were Kitana Dukh Bhulaya Tumne and O Preet Nibhanewali, released in 1940 under GCI's Columbia label. Music for these songs were composed by Kamal Dasgupta, lyrics were by Faiyaz Hashmi.

Hemanta's first film song was in the Bengali film Nimai Sanyas released in 1941. Music for this film was scored by Hariprasanna Das. Hemanta's first compositions for himself were the Bengali non-film songs Katha Kayonako Shudhu Shono and Amar Biraha Akashe Priya in 1944. Lyrics of these two songs were by Amiya Bagchi. His first Hindi film songs were in Irada in 1944 under Pt. Amarnath's music direction. Lyrics were by Aziz Kashmiri.

Hemanta is considered a foremost exponent of Rabindrasangeet. His first recorded Rabindrasangeet was in the Bengali film Priya Bandhabi (1944).[2] The song was Pather Sesh Kothaye. He recorded his first non-film Rabindrasangeet disc in 1944 under the Columbia label. The songs were Aamar Aar Habe Na Deri and Keno Pantha E Chanchalata. His first movie as a music director was the Bengali film Abhiyatri in 1947. Although many of the songs Hemanta recorded during this time received critical acclaim, major commercial success eluded him until 1947. Some contemporary male singers of Hemanta in Bengali around that period were Jaganmay Mitra, Robin Majumdar, Satya Chowdhury, Dhananjay Bhattacharya, Sudhirlal Chakraborty, Bechu Dutta and Talat Mahmood.

In the mid-1940s, Hemanta became an active member of the Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA) and started an association with another active IPTA member — songwriter and composer Salil Chowdhury. One of the main driving forces behind the establishment of IPTA was the Bengal famine of 1943 and the inaction of the British administration and wealthy Indians to prevent it from happening. In 1948, Hemanta recorded a non-film song called 'Ganyer badhu' (literally translates to 'The rural bride') that had music and lyrics by Salil Chowdhury. The six-minute song recorded on two sides of a 78 rpm disc was sung at a varying pace and lacked the conventional structure and romantic theme of a Bengali song. It depicted an idyllic, prosperous and caring rural woman's life and family and how it gets ravaged by the demons of famine and ensuing poverty. This song generated an unforeseen popularity for Hemanta and Salil in eastern India and, in a way, established Hemanta ahead of his male contemporaries. Hemanta and Salil paired again in several songs over the next few years. Almost all these songs proved to be very popular.

Around the same period, Hemanta started receiving more assignments for music composition for Bengali films. Some were for a director named Hemen Gupta. When Hemen moved to Mumbai a few years later, he called upon Hemanta to compose music for his first directorial venture in Hindi titled Anandmath under the Filmistan banner. Responding to this call, Hemanta migrated to Mumbai in 1951 and joined the Filmistan Studios. The music of Anand Math (1952) was a moderate success. Perhaps, the most notable songs from this movie is 'Vande mataram' sung by Lata Mangeshkar, which Hemanta set to a marching tune. Following Anandamath, Hemanta scored music for a few Filmistan movies like Shart in subsequent years, the songs of which received moderate popularity. Simultaneously, Hemanta gained popularity in Mumbai as a playback singer. His songs playbacked for actor Dev Anand under music director Sachin Dev Burman in movies like Jaal, House No. 44, Solva Saal and 'Baat ek raat ki' became quite popular.

By the mid-1950s, Hemanta had consolidated his position as a prominent singer and composer. In Bengal, he was one of the foremost exponents of Rabindrasangeet and perhaps the most sought after male singer. In a ceremony organised by Hemanta Mukhopadhyay to honour Debabrata Biswas (1911–1980), the legendary Rabindrasangeet exponent, in Calcutta in March, 1980, Debabrata Biswas unhesitatingly mentioned Hemanta as "the second hero" to popularise Rabindrasangeet, the first being none other than the legendary Pankaj Kumar Mallick. In Mumbai, along with playback singing, Hemanta also carved a niche as a composer. He composed music for a Hindi film called Nagin (1954) which became a major success owing largely to its music. Songs of Nagin remained chart-toppers continuously for two years and culminated in Hemant receiving the prestigious Filmfare Best Music Director Award in 1955. The very same year, he scored music for a Bengali movie called Shapmochan in which he also played back four songs for the Bengali actor Uttam Kumar. This started a long partnership between Hemant and Uttam as a playback singer-actor pair. They were the most popular singer-actor duo in Bengali Cinema over the next decade.

In the latter part of the 1950s, Hemanta composed music and sang for several Bengali and Hindi films, recorded several Rabindrasangeets and Bengali non-film songs. Almost all of these, especially his Bengali songs became very popular. This period can be termed as the zenith of his career and lasted for almost a decade. He sang songs composed by the major music directors in Bengal such as Nachiketa Ghosh, Robin Chatterjee and Salil Chowdhury. Some of the notable films Hemanta himself composed music for during this period include Harano Sur, Marutirtha Hinglaj, Neel Akasher Neechey, Lukochuri, Swaralipi, Deep Jwele Jaai, Shesh Parjanta, Kuhak, Dui Bhai, and Saptapadi in Bengali, and, Jagriti and Ek Hi Raasta in Hindi. Hemant Kumar also sang several Marathi songs, notably "Mee Dolkara, Dolkara, Dolakra dariyacha raaja...." (मी डोलकर, डोलकर दर्याचा राजा) with Lata Mangeshkar. This song became immensely popular. Another popular Marathi song by Hemant Kumar, "Gomu sangatina mazya tu yeshil kay" (गोमू संगतीनं माझ्या तू येशील काय), is filmed on the famous actor Kashinath Ghanekar in the film Ha Khel Saavalyancha, हा खेळ सावल्यांचा. Another marathi song sung by Hemant Da is "Preetichya Chandraati". Additionally one more Koli Geet is "Daryawari re tarali hori re" along with singer Shyama chittar.

It was in the 1960s that he was the predominant and lead male voice in many of Tagore's musical dramas like "Valmiki Pratibha", "Shyama", "Sapmochan","Chitrangada" and "Chandalika". Together with Kanika Bandopadhyay (1924–2000) and Suchitra Mitra (1924–2010)who were the lead female voices in these, he was part of the Rabindrasangeet triumvirate that was both popular and respected and was referred as 'Hemanta-Kanika-Suchitra' and along with Debabrata Biswas, this quartet was and still continues to be most heard exponents of Tagore compositions. In the 1970s, Hemanta's contribution in Hindi films was nominal. He scored music for a handful of his home productions, but none of these movies were successful nor the music of them. In Bengal, however, he remained the foremost exponent of Rabindrasangeet. His non-film output was popular in the early part of the decade. In 1971, Hemanta debuted as a film director in for his self-produced Bengali movie titled Anindita. The movie didn't fare exceedingly well at the box office. In the early to mid-1970s, two major music composers in Bengal, Nachiketa Ghosh and Robin Chatterjee, who had worked closely with Hemanta since the early 1950s, died. Simultaneously, music composed by Hemanta for Bengali films like Fuleswari, Raag Anurag and Dadar Kirti established Hemanta as the major film music composer in the Bengal movie scene. In 1979, Hemanta re-recorded some of his earlier works with composer Salil Chowdhury from the 1940s and 1950s. This album, titled 'Legend of Glory, vol. 2' was a major commercial success, despite Hemanta's aged and slightly tired voice.

In 1980, Hemanta suffered a major heart attack (myocardial infarction) that severely affected his vocal capabilities, especially his breath control. He continued to record songs in the early eighties, but his voice was a shade of its rich baritone past. In 1984, Hemanta was felicitated by different organizations, most notably by the Gramophone Company of India, for completing 50 years in music. Ironically, that very year Hemanta released his last album with Gramophone Company of India – a 45 rpm extended play disc with four non-film songs. Over the next few years, Hemanta released non-film songs under various small-time labels that had cropped up in the nascent cassette-based music industry. Only a few of these were commercially successful. He composed music for a handful of Bengali movies and one Bengali and one Hindi tele-series. However, by this time he had become an institution, a beloved personality, and a courteous and friendly gentleman. His philanthropic activities included running a homeopathic hospital in memory of his late Father in their native village in Baharu, in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. In a television interview to noted elocutionist Gauri Ghosh, his wife Bela Mukhopadhyaya recalled that she never knew during his lifetime the number of families and persons he helped to put up financially or otherwise; only after he passed away that this truth gradually unveiled. He continued to feature regularly on All India Radio, Doordarshan (TV) and live programmes/concerts during this period.

In 1987, he was nominated for Padmabhushan which he refused politely, having already turned down the offer to receive Padmashree in the 1970s. In this year, he was publicly felicitated in Netaji Indoor Stadium in Calcutta for completing 50 years in musical journey, where, Lata Mangeshkar presented him with the memento on behalf of his fans and admirers.Despite his ageing voice, he became the Best Male Singer in 1988 for his rendition in the film "Lalan Fakir". In September 1989, he travelled to Dhaka, Bangladesh to receive the Michael Madhusudan Award. He performed a concert in Dhaka as well. Immediately after returning from this trip, he suffered a major heart attack (myocardial infarction) on 26 September and died at 11:15 pm in a nursing home in South Calcutta. Interestingly, even nearly two decades after his death, Gramophone Company of India releases at least one album by him every year, repackaging his older songs, because of the commercial viability of his songs. His legacy still lives on through the numerous songs he has recorded, music he has composed and through many male singers in Bengal and the rest of India who continue to imitate his singing style.

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